Lewis Silkin – Advice on key principles of privilege from Court docket of Attraction

The judgment is in the situation of Karam Salah Al Din Awni Al Sadeq v Dechert LLP and other individuals, which problems an unique, Mr Al Sadeq (the “Claimant”) who, until eventually 2012, was a formal lawful advisor and Deputy CEO for the Ras Al Khaimah Expense Authority (“RAKIA“), the sovereign wealth fund for the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah (“RAK“).

RAKIA alleges that in 2012, it discovered that its former Chairman and CEO had committed important frauds versus RAKIA and other people and, collectively with associates, experienced misappropriated resources. The Claimant was arrested in Dubai, taken to and detained in RAK and was in the end convicted of fraud and imprisoned. The Claimant maintains his innocence and claims that his convictions are wrongful and politically inspired.

The claim

The Claimant issued proceedings in opposition to a law business primarily based in London, collectively with previous associates of the company, who experienced been engaged to support in investigating the things to do of the former Chairman and CEO. The Claimant alleges severe wrongdoing by the Defendants all through an investigation in relation to the earlier mentioned conditions.

The Claimant built an application to the Substantial Court, in search of to obstacle the Defendants’ place on privilege adhering to disclosure in the proceedings. The application failed and the Claimant appealed.

The attraction

The essential concerns arising from the attraction decision in relation to privilege are as follows:

The iniquity exception

In limited, the iniquity exception is the principle that no legal experienced privilege exists in files produced as section of or in furtherance of criminal offense, fraud or other iniquity. In the existing situation, the Claimant particularised wrongs he says were being fully commited versus him in RAK, which include: (i) illegal abduction from Dubai to RAK and his illegal detention there (ii) illegal prison disorders and (iii) denial of access to authorized illustration (the “A few Iniquities”).

The COA determined a few concerns to be decided.

Initial, the COA deemed regardless of whether, in buy for the iniquity exception to be engaged, the Claimant experienced set up the existence of the A few Iniquities to the needed merits threshold and what, in fact, is that threshold? The COA famous that the events appeared to agree that there had to be ‘a sturdy prima facie case’ but “had incredibly diverse strategies of what that means in practice.” The Court docket concluded that (save in outstanding situations) the accurate deserves threshold for the iniquity exception is a equilibrium of possibilities examination:

the existence of the iniquity need to be much more probably than not on the content obtainable to the determination maker, whether or not that be the social gathering or authorized adviser figuring out regardless of whether to give or withhold disclosure, or the court on any application in which the difficulty occurs and that in an interlocutory context there is no distinction to be drawn between instances in which the iniquity is a person of the concerns in the proceedings and people where it is not” [para 63].

This determination supplies welcome clarity as to the test which should be applied when analyzing whether or not the iniquity exception is engaged. This must aid stay clear of skirmishes among functions write-up-disclosure as to the appropriate threshold, resulting in all or parts of disclosure processes staying repeated, and hence averting avoidable prices. By virtue of its proviso, “preserve in excellent conditions”, the COA remaining open the possibility that in certain circumstances, a court may perhaps will need to undertake a balancing exercising of the competing passions of the parties (i.e. of disclosure vs non-disclosure). When these instances might crop up were not discovered, which leaves a slight uncertainty.

In the present case, the Claimant was discovered to have content the threshold test in respect of the Three Iniquities.

Next, the COA requested, if the iniquity exception was engaged, what is the lawful examination for the connection among the communication and the iniquity which will have to be recognized in order to bring the exception into participate in (and consequently necessarily mean that the documents are to be disclosed)?

The COA concluded that the correct formulation was that, “where by there is a prima facie circumstance of iniquity which engages the exception, there is no privilege in paperwork and communications introduced into existence as element of or in furtherance of the iniquity. These are two groups, possibly of which is enough.” (emphasis added)

The inclusion of the text “part of” will seize paperwork which report on or expose the conduct in concern. Having said that, the Courtroom famous that there must also be an abuse of the law firm/shopper partnership these types of that, if a document detailing the iniquity experienced been delivered to the attorney for the reason of trying to find lawful suggestions on the iniquity, the iniquity exception would not use.

Third, the COA viewed as whether there are documents which the Defendants failed to disclose which they ought to have carried out, supplied the results on the higher than concerns. As a final result of the summary on the 1st and next factors, the COA turned down the method taken in disclosure by the law organization as currently being much too narrow and would have to be completed once again. It was not apparent whether or not or not this would final result in further disclosure of documents.

Litigation privilege – third functions

One of the important challenges arising in regard of litigation privilege in the appeal is irrespective of whether these privilege can implement to events who are not (and are not expected to be) events to the proceedings in problem, but who if not fulfill the take a look at for litigation privilege. Especially, previous purchasers of the Defendant legislation company which were being not occasion to the proceedings, in relation to litigation privilege regarding prison proceedings in RAK.

The COA uncovered that, provided the dominant goal requirement is met, “there appears no principled basis for restricting the scope of litigation to that which the man or woman is a celebration”. The Court supplied a number of examples to illustrate and justify this summary [para 195].

The Courtroom turned down the reasoning in Minera Las Bambas SA v Glencore Queensland Ltd [2018] EWHC 286 (Comm) – a case which had indicated that litigation privilege would not extend to non-get-togethers to the litigation. This is since privilege is broader than protecting towards disclosure only to the opposing bash in the litigation in issue.

The COA still left open up the question of whether or not there also has to be a sufficient curiosity in the contemplated proceedings by the functions asserting privilege – any these necessity was pleased in this circumstance. The Courtroom concluded that instances where a get together was a “stranger to the litigation” would be uncommon, but this issue should really drop to be established in the applicable instances.

Litigation privilege – software of Three Rivers (No 5) theory

In 3 Rivers (No 5) [2003] EWCA Civ 474, the COA adopted a restrictive interpretation of a ‘client’ acquiring legal information in the take a look at for the application of legal information privilege. It was established that, in the circumstance of a corporate entity, the client is not the entity alone, but a slender team of individuals utilized by that entity who are expressly tasked with getting that information on its behalf.

The Claimant in the existing circumstance argued that this idea need to also apply to litigation privilege.

The COA pointed out that this principle has gained “appreciable criticism” and has not been followed in other jurisdictions. It swiftly dismissed the Claimant’s argument, noting that the principle does not use to litigation privilege.

The Court docket also mentioned that, while the basic principle in the A few Rivers (No 5) situation is binding on the COA, the functions in the existing situation experienced taken positions on it in the function that this situation was to carry on to the Supreme Court.

Lawful suggestions privilege

Lastly, the Claimant argued that files made for the dominant purpose of the Defendants’ investigatory do the job must not be withheld from inspection on the grounds of lawful assistance privilege. It was argued that these kinds of perform experienced associated no authorized abilities or examination.

Thanks to the results on the prior troubles and the proof in this case that no paperwork had been withheld on the foundation of lawful guidance privilege on your own in the initial disclosure training, and handful of had been subsequently disclosed, the Court docket uncovered this concern not to be of good significance.

However, the COA observed that the Defendant regulation agency was “engaged in the investigatory process to convey their lawyers’ capabilities to that course of action and to conduct it by lawyers’ eyes” and even if it had been undertaking responsibilities that a public prosecutor could have completed (as alleged by the Claimant), that would include “performing in a authorized context in opposition to the qualifications of staying instructed to offer authorized advice in relation to suspected fraud”. Hence, the work carried out (even if do the job might also have been undertaken by a non-law firm) fell inside of the lawful context of the instruction of a world regulation organization. Subject to even more proof, the Court concluded on the points that there is almost nothing to infer that lawful advice privilege had been wrongly claimed in regard of documents relating to the Defendants’ investigative pursuits.


It is worth noting that the COA concluded its results by noting the delay of 15 months for delivery of the Significant Courtroom judgment. It mentioned that the COA has “regularly emphasised the value of judgments, even in complex issues, currently being sent within just three months, and the adverse effects of delay not just on the parties but also on general public self-confidence in the justice technique”. It was observed that hold off was not a purpose to allow for an charm, but if there has been a prolonged delay, an appellate courtroom have to acquire “special treatment” in reviewing the judge’s getting of specifics and reasoning.


The Claimant was unsuccessful on its attractiveness on all points, preserve for the iniquity exception situation, which has resulted in the disclosure physical exercise acquiring to be revisited. In making its conclusions, the COA has delivered welcome clarity on some significant privilege details:

(i)the check for the engagement of the iniquity exception

(ii)that litigation privilege is not restricted to functions to the litigation

(iii)that the restrictive interpretation of ‘client’ taken in A few Rivers (No 5) in regard of legal advice privilege would not be prolonged to litigation privilege and

(iv)that legal tips privilege will implement to investigations by regulation companies (also involving non-lawyers), furnished they carry their “lawyers’ skills” to that procedure and “conduct it by lawyers’ eyes”.

For a dialogue on privilege problems, such as our interactive and educational privilege schooling giving to authorized and business teams, be sure to make contact with Neil Parkes.

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